Botanical Reference

Alfalfa Medicago sativa
Alterative, antipyretic, diuretic, appetite stimulant, hemostatic

Angelica Angelica archangelica
Stimulates appetite, carminative, expectorant, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, diuretic

Arnica Arnica montana
Diaphoretic, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, stimulant, vulnerary

Artichoke leaf Cynara scolymus
Cholagogue, diuretic, tonic

Arjuna Terminalia arjuna
Alterative, astringent, cardiac stimulant, hemostatic, rejuvenative tonic and lithotriptic. It is also helpful in bilious affections. It is styptic, anti-dysenteric and febrifugal. It has great role in hypertension, IHD or ischemic heart disease, congestive cardiac failure.

Ashwagandha Withania Somnifera
Tonic, rejuvenative, nervine, sedative, astringent, anti-asthmatic, bactericide, contraceptive, diuretic, anti-inflammatory

Astragalus Astragalus membranaceus
Rejuvenative, immuno-stimulant, anti-tumor, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, aid digestion and help balance blood sugar

Bacopa Bacopa monniera
Stimulates brain function, cardio-tonic, nervine, diuretic

Basswood/Linden Tilia Europaea
Diaphoretic, stomachic Bark: emollient

BeeBalm, Bergamot Monarda spp.
Stimulant, carminative, rubefacient, antiseptic, expectorant

Benzoin Stryrax benzoin
Astringent, carminative, expectorant, antiseptic, anti-fungal, preservative

Bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus
Antiseptic, astringent, nutritive, diuretic, strengthens blood vessels, refrigerant

Blood Root Sanguinaria canadensis
Expectorant, alterative, stimulant, diuretic, febrifuge, sedative, antibacterial, emmenagogue, tonic, emetic in larger doses. An overdose can be fatal.

Blueberry leaf Vaccinium angustifolium
Antioxidant, diuretic, astringent, antiseptic

Boneset Eupatorium perfoliatum
Laxative, antispasmodic, expectorant, vasoconstrictor, cholagogue, cathartic, emetic, febrifuge, tonic, aperient, diaphoretic, diuretic, nervine, carminative, stimulant

Buchu Barosma betulina
Aromatic, antiseptic, febrifuge, tonic, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, stimulant

Buckthorn Rhamnus frangula
Mucilaginous, tonic, laxative, cathartic

Bugleweed Lycopus spp.
Cardio-tonic, diuretic, anti-tussive, hypoglycemic, sedative, anti-hemorrhagic

Burdock root Arctium lappa
Alterative, antipyretic, aperient, cholagogue, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic, tonic

Cabbage leaf Lactuca sativa capitata
Inhibits growth of cancer cells

Calendula Calendula officinalis
Antispasmodic, aperient, cholagogue, diaphoretic, vulnerary, emmenagogue, diaphoretic, alterative, astringent

Cape Aloes Aloe ferox
Laxative, creates peristalsis, rehydrates the colon

Cascara Sagrada Rhamnus purshianus
Bitter, astringent, cooling, tonic for liver and digestive system, acts as a laxative

Catnip Nepeta cataria
Anodyne, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac (for cats), aromatic, carminative, diaphoretic, nervine, emmenagogue, sedative (for humans), stimulant, tonic

Cat’s Claw Uncaria tomentosa
Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, tonic, anodyne, antiviral, alterative, hypotensive, antidepressant

Cayenne Capsicum annuum
Appetizer, antiseptic, febrifuge, antibacterial, carminative, diaphoretic, rubefacient, condiment, nerve tonic, digestive, irritant, sialagogue, stimulant, and tonic

Chamomile (German) Matricaria recutita
Calmative, antispasmodic, anodyne, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, carminative, nervine

Chaparral Larrea tridentata
Antiviral, antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, contains NDGA, immuno-stimulant,

Chaste Berry Vitex angus-castus
treats amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea & menopause, contains phytoestrogens, anaphrodisiac

Chickweed Stellaria media
Alterative, astringent, anti-rheumatic, carminative, demulcent, emollient, expectorant, laxative, refrigerant, mucilaginous, pectoral, discutient

Chrysanthemum Dendranthema indicum, D . grandiflorum
Antiseptic, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, used for treating head aches, dizziness, and eye concerns

Cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia
Stimulant, anti-diabetic, alterative, analgesic, aromatic, astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, mild laxative

Cleavers Galium aparine
Lymphatic tonic, anti-fungal, alterative, diuretic, vulnerary, astringent

Clover flowers (Red) Trifolium pratense
Phytoestrogen, tonic, anticancer, anti-tumor, antioxidant, alterative, nervine

Cloves Syzgium aromaticum
Carminative, digestive aid, anti-nausea, rubefacient, anodyne, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-fungal, antiseptic, antispasmodic, improves urine production

Cohosh (Black) Cimicifuga racemosa
Alterative, astringent, diuretic, alterative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, anti-rheumatic, antispasmodic, cardiac stimulant, anti-inflammatory, sedative, anti-tussive, uterine stimulant

Cohosh (Blue) Caulophyllum thalictroides
Stimulant, sedative, sudorific (produces sweat), tonic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, parturient, emmenagogue, anthelmintic, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic, oxytocic.

Coltsfoot Tussilago farfara
Anticatarrhal, expectorant, demulcent, bitter, diuretic, immune stimulant, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tussive

Comfrey Symphytum officinale
Astringent, demulcent, hemostatic, vulnerary, accelerates mitosis

Cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon
Antioxidant, used in bladder and kidney infections, anti-inflammatory

Damiana Turnera diffusa aphrodisiaca
Aphrodisiac, antidepressant, diuretic, stimulating tonic

Dandelion Taraxacum officinale
Alterative, cholagogue, deobstruent, diuretic, stomachic, hepatic, laxative, tonic, aperient, mild laxative, liver and digestive tonic.

Devilís Club Oplopanax horridus
Adaptogen, emetic, purgative, antiviral, anti-fungal, laxative, analgesic

Dill seed Anethum graveolens
Aromatic, carminative, stomachic, antispasmodic

Dock (Yellow) Rumex crispus
Antipyretic, astringent, cholagogue, depurative, tonic, laxative, anti-scorbutic, alterative

Dong Qui Angelica sinensis
Blood tonic, emmenagogue, sedative, analgesic, laxative, tonic, diaphoretic, antispasmodic

Echinace Echinacea purpurea, E.angustafolia, E. pallida
Alterative, antibacterial, antiviral, analgesic, digestive, tonic, antiseptic, depurative, febrifuge, sialagogue, diaphoretic

Elderberry Sambucus nigra
Anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anticatarrhal, diaphoretic, emetic, diuretic, expectorant

Eluethro Senticosis Eleuthrococcus senticosis
Adaptogen, anti-inflammatory, hepatic tonic, anti-coagulant, improves short term memory, immuno-modulator

Ephedra/MaHuang Ephedra gerardiana, E. major, E. sinica
Bronchio-dilator, hypertensive, vasoconstrictor, alterative

Eyebright Euphrasia officinalis
Anti-inflammatory, antihistamine, anti-catarrhal, astringent

Fennel seed Foeniculum vulgare
Stomachic, carminative, pectoral, diuretic, aromatic, antispasmodic, expectorant, mild expectorant, anti-inflammatory, stimulant

Fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum
Expectorant, anti-diabetic, demulcent, emollient, febrifuge, carminative, nutritive, tonic, mucilaginous, restorative, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, stimulant

Feverfew Tanacetum parthenium
Carminative (gas relief), emmenagogue, purgative, stimulant, bitter tonic, antipyretic, mild laxative, anti-inflammatory, vermifuge

FoTi (He Shou Wu) Polygonum multiflorum
Reduces serum cholestrol, digestive tonic, immuno-stimulant, combats premature aging and greying, kidney & liver tonic,

Foxglove Digitalis purpurea
Stimulates vagus nerve slowing heart rate, improves coronary circulation

Frankincense Boswelllia serrata
Expectorant, carminative, diuretic, antiseptic, stimulant

Garlic Allium sativum
Alterative, anthelmintic, antispasmodic, carminative, cholagogue, digestive, expectorant, febrifuge, antibiotic, antiseptic, stimulant

Gentian Gentiana lutea
Bitter, hemopoietic, emmenagogue, sialagogue, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, tonic

Ginger root Zingiber officinale
Antispasmodic, antiemetic, analgesic, antiseptic, appetizer, aromatic, carminative, condiment, diaphoretic, expectorant, febrifuge, pungent, sialagogue, stimulant

Gingko Gingko biloba
Relax blood vessels, circulatory stimulant

Golden Seal Hydrastis canadensis
Laxative, tonic, alterative, antipyretic, antibacterial, detergent, ophthalmicum, antiperiodic, mild laxative, diuretic, antiseptic, deobstruent

Gotu Kola Centella asiatica
Alterative, antipyretic, diuretic, febrifuge, antispasmodic, nervine, sedative, tonic

Green tea Camellia sinensis
Antioxidant, antibacterial, antiseptic, inhibits tumors & cancers

Guarana Paullinia cupana
Adaptogen, tonic, nutrient, nervine, stringent, diuretic, aphrodisiac, adrenal stimulant

Gymnema Sylvestre Gymnema Sylvestre
Bitter, anti-diabetic, acrid, cooling, tonic, alterative, anthelmintic, counteracts infection & poison, bronchial dilator

Hawthorn leaf, flower, & berry Crataegus monogyna
Astringent, antispasmodic, cardiac tonic, carminative, diuretic, sedative, stimulant, vasodilator

Hops Humulus lupulus
Anodyne, anthelmintic, diuretic, febrifuge, hypnotic, nervine, sedative, soporific, tonic, anaphrodisiac, stomachic

Horse Chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum
Tonic, stimulant, narcotic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, nutritive, febrifuge, expectorant, reduces varicose veins

Horse Nettles Solanum carolinense
Reduces cysts, diuretic, antispasmodic

Horsetail Equisetume arvense
Hemostatic, styptic, diuretic, anti-rheumatic, astringent, immune enhancer, high in silicic acid (silica)

Juniper berries Juniperus communis
Analgesic, antibacterial, antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, diaphoretic, disinfectant, rubefacient, stomachic, tonic, uterine stimulant, anti-rheumatic

Kava kava Piper methysticum
Antimicrobial, antiseptic, analgesic, anti-spasmodic, nervine, diuretic, stimulant, tonic

Kelp Ascophyllum nodosum
Expectorant, demulcent, emollient, alterative, diuretic, nutritive, thyroid tonic, anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory, metabolic stimulant

Kudzu Pueraria montana lobata
Reduces craving for alcohol, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, phytoestrogen, analgesic

Lemon Balm / Melissa Melissa officinalis
Antispasmodic, calmative, carminative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, stomachic, febrifuge, sedative, antidepressant, nervine

Licorice root Glycyrrhiza glabra
Demulcent, phytoestrogen, diuretic, expectorant, laxative, emetic, emollient, pectoral, alterative, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, sedative, tonic, stimulant

Lobelia Lobelia inflata
Anti-asthmatic, antispasmodic, sedative, expectorant, diaphoretic,emetic, bronchio-dilator, smoking deterrent

Lomatium Lomatium dissectum
Anti-viral, antibacterial, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, immuno-stimulant, disinfectant, opthalmic,stomachic, tonic

Lycii / Wolf berry Lycium barbarum
Antioxidant, high in vitamins & minerals

Maca Lepidium meyenii
Adaptogen, male & female reproductive tonic, antioxidant

Mango Mangifera indica
Anti-cancer, anti-tumor, antibacterial, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal

Marshmallow Altheae officinalis
Emollient, demulcent, nutrient, alterative, anti-lithic anti-tussive, vulnerary, diuretic

Meadowsweet Filipendula ulmaria
Antacid, anti-rheumatic, astringent, antiseptic, diaphoretic, diuretic, hepatic, anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic

Milk Thistle Silybum marianum
Cholagogue, liver tonic, stimulant, demulcent, antidepressant, galactagogue

Mistletoe Viscum album
American mistletoe: Emetic, nervine. European mistletoe: Cardiac, diuretic, stimulant, vasodilator, narcotic, antispasmodic, nervine

Mitchella Repens Mitchella Repens
Astringent, galactagogue, amenorrheic, uterine tonic

Motherwort Leonurus cardiaca
Anti-spasmodic, laxative, diaphoretic, sedative, hypotensive, emmenagogue, vaso-constrictor

Mugwort Atremisia vulagis
Nervine, diuretic, sholeretic, diaphoretic, orexigenic, bitter, anti-diabetic

Mullein leaf Verbascum thapsus
Pectoral demulcent, anti-tussive, diuretic, sedative, vulnerary, anti-spasmodic

Mustard seed Brassica juncea
Diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, rubefacient, stimulant

Myrrh Commiphora myrrha
Alterative, analgesic, antifungal, antiseptic, astringent, carminative, emmenagogue, expectorant, antispasmodic, disinfectant, immune stimulant, circulatory stimulant, stomachic, tonic, vulnerary

Neem leaf Azadirschata indica
Parasitacide, anti-fungal, antiviral

Nettles (Stinging) Urtica dioica
Astringent, hemostatic, diuretic, galactagogue, lowers blood sugar levels, expectorant, tonic, nutritive, styptic, rubefacient

Nightshade (Common) Solanum nigrum
Stomach tonic, topical anodyne, reduces cysts, anti-tumor, anti-cancer

Oak bark (White) Quercus alba
Astringent, tonic, antiseptic, anthelmintic, styptic

Oats (Wild) & Oatmeal Avena sativa
Nervine, antidepressant, cardio-tonic, source of minerals, brain tonic

Olive leaf Olea europaea
Anti-viral, demulcent, emollient, laxative, nutrient

Onion skins Allium cepa
Contains quercetin, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, expectorant

Orange peel Citrus sinensis
Carminative, bitter, contains isoflavones

Oregon grape Mahonia aquifolium, nervosa
Antibacterial, anti-fungal, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, immuno-modulator

Osha root Ligusticum porteri
Anti-viral, anti-tussive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, febrifuge, anti-rheumatic

Parsley Petroselinum crispum
Anti-microbial, antispasmodic, anti-rheumatic, emmenagogue, laxative, brain tonic, diuretic, carminative, expectorant, gastric tonic, uterine tonic

Passion Flower Passiflora incarnata
Antispasmodic, vasodilator, analgesic, hypnotic, sedative

Pau d’arco / Tahibo/ La Pacha Tabebuia impetiginosa
Antimicrobial, anti-tumor, immuno-modulator, analgesic, anodyne, diuretic, anti-fungal, antipyretic, anti-cancer, anti-candida, anti-inflammatory

Pennyroyal Mentha pulegium
Carminative, diaphoretic, emmenogogue, antispasmodic, mild sedative, sudorific, stimulant, aromatic

Peony Paeonia albiflora                                                                                                                                                                   Analgesic, anodyne, anti-inflammatory, hepatic tonic, alturative, antispasmodic, depurative, emmenagogue, febrifuge, vulnerary.

Pepper (Black) Piper nigrum
Orexigenic, carminative, parasitacide, analgesic, anodyne

Peppermint Mentha piperita
Diaphoretic, aromatic, carminative, chologogue, stomachic, calmative, mild alterative, stimulant, rubefacient, nervine, analgesic

Periwinkle Vinca major
Anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-tumor, hypotonic, sedative

Plantain leaf Plantago lanceolata
Anti-histamine, antibacterial, lymphatic, diuretic, expectorant, demulcent, astringent antacid, anti-pruretic

Pleurisy root Asclepias tuberosa
Carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, antispasmodic, relaxant, tonic

Poke root Phytolacca americana
Deobstruent, lymphatic, alterative, parasiticide, anti-rheumatic, anti-neoplastic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory

Psyllium seed husks Plantago affra
Demulcent, laxative

Raspberry (Red) Rubus idaeus
Pre-natal aid, astringent, antispasmodic

Red Root Cdeanothus americanus
Alterative, febrifuge, astringent, stimulant tonic, expectorant

Rehmannia/Shu Di Huang Rehmannia glutinos
Lowers serum cholesterol, hemostatic, antipyretic, diuretic, blood tonic, kidney tonic, hypotensive, protects the liver, cardio-tonic, demulcent

Rhodiola root Rhodiola rosea
Boosts cognitive functions, stimulant, neuro-transmitter functions, adaptogen, antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory

Rooibos tea Aspalathus linearis
Antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory

Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis
Stimulant, diaphoretic, carminative, nervine, aromatic, cephalic antispasmodic

Sarsaparilla Smilax spp.
anti-rheumatic, antipruritic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, diaphoretic, antiseptic, blood tonic, stimulant, immune enhancer

Sassafras Sassafras albidum
Aromatic, stimulant, alterative, diaphoretic, diuretic, antiseptic

Saw Palmetto Serenoa repens
Antiseptic, cardiac, diuretic, expectorant, sedative, tonic, adaptogen

Schizandra berry Schisandra chinensis
Adaptogen, anti-fatigue, stimuant, anti-bacterial, cardiac tonic, antioxidant, anti-depressant

Senna leaf & pod Senna alexandrina
Stimulant, laxative, anti-tumor

Sheep Sorrel Rumex acetosella
Anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antidiarrheal, antipyretic.

Shepardís Purse Capsella bursa-pastoris
Hemostatic, antiseptic, diuretic, stimulant, astringent, hypotensive, emmenagogue, anti-uric acid

Skullcap Scutellaria lateriflora
Sedative, antispasmodic, anti-convulsive, nervine, vasodilator,

Slippery Elm Ulmus rubra
Demulcent, anti-tussive, nutrient, expectorant, emollient, antiseptic

Soapwort Saponaria officinalis
Laxative, diuretic, expectorant, cholagogue, detergent, blood tonic

Solomonís Seal Polygonatum multiflorum, P. odoratum
Antispasmodic, antibacterial, aphrodisiac, astringent, demulcent, emetic, expectorant, hemostatic, nutritive tonic

St. Johnís Wort Hypericum perforatum
Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, astringent, nervine, sedative, antispasmodic, astringent, expectorant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, blood purifier, tranquilizer, sedative, nervine, vulnerary, aromatic, diuretic, stimulates digestion.

Suma root Pfaffia paniculatta
Adaptogen, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, aphrodisiac, cellular protector, immuno-stimulant, nervine, anti-oxidant.

Turkey Rhubarb Rheum palmatum
Laxative, antiseptic, antispasmodic, anti-tumor, astringent, diuretic, hemostatic, purgative, cholagogue, anti-tumor

Turmeric root Curcuma longa
Anti-inflammatory, aromatic, alterative, antioxidant, carminative, cholagogue, detoxifier, anti-tumor, anti-cancer

Usnea Usnea barbata
Immuno-stimulant, anti-fungal, anti-viral, antibacterial, anti-microbial

Uva Ursa Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Diuretic, strongly astringent, tonic

Valerian root Valerian officinalis
Calmative, antispasmodic, nerve tonic, nervine, sedative, anodyne, and carminative, aromatic, emmenagogue

Vervain (Blue) Verbena officinalis
Antiperiodic, diaphoretic, emetic, expectorant, tonic, vermifuge, vulnerary, sudorific, nervine, emmenagogue

Violet leaf (Blue) Viola papilionacea
Anti-neoplastic, antiseptic, expectorant

Watercress Nasturtium microphyllum, N. officinale
Diuretic, expectorant, purgative, stimulant, stomachic, tonic

Walnut leaf & hull (Black) Juglans regia
Bark: astringent, laxative, alterative, parasitacide Leaves: alterative, parasitacide Rind: hepatic

Willow bark (White) Salix alba
Alterative, anodyne, febrifuge, astringent, anti-periodic, anthelmintic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, tonic, vermifuge

Wintergreen oil Gaultheria procumbens
analgesic, antirheumatic and antiarthritic, antispasmodic, antiseptic, aromatic, and astringent properties. It also acts as a carminative, diuretic, and emenagogue.

Witch Hazel Hamamelis virginiana
Astringent, hemostatic, sedative, styptic, tonic

Wormwood Artemesia assinthium
Anthelmintic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aromatic, carminative, cholagogue, febrifuge, narcotic, stimulant, stomachic, tonic

Yam (Wild) Dioscorea villosa
Analgesic, anti-bilious, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, emetic in large doses, hepatic, nutritive tonic

Yarrow flower Achillea millefolium
Astringent, antispasmodic, tonic, promotes sweating, styptic, hemostatic, alterative, diuretic, vulnerary, diaphoretic, carminitive, and stomachic

Yerba Mate Ilex paraguayensis
Depurative, diuretic, stimulant


 

Main References:
http://www.emedicinal.com
http://www.holisticonline.com
http://botanical.com
Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine by Thomas Bartram
A Modern Herbal by Mrs. M. Grieve
Major Herbs of Ayurveda edited by Eliz. Williamson
Botanical Reference / Materia Medica
Botanical Reference / Materia Medica